THE DAWN OF CIVILIZATION [ Pre-history – 771 BC ]
PRE-HISTORY – 2100 BC:
circa 500,000 BC: In 1918, Swedish paleontologist J.G. Anderson discovers a group of fossils near Beijing (known collectively as Peking Man). Though not a direct ancestor of the Chinese, skulls indicate a brain about two-thirds of modern man. Evidence that Homo eretus could make fire and used primitive stone tools.
circa 60,000 BC: Homo sapiens arrive on the scene.
circa 30,000 BC: Homo sapiens are the last humanoid species left on the planet (in your face Neanderthals!).
circa 8000-2000 BC : Rise of settlements based on agricultural economy emerged in eastern coastal regions and along rich river deltas of the Yellow River and Yangzi River. These early civilizations relied mostly on hunting, fishing, and gathering.
Cultures later started cultivating of millet and rice, as well as domesticating pigs, water buffalos, and dogs. Remarkably elaborate pottery and jade artifacts dates back to this period, notably from the cultures of the Yangshao (5000-3000BC) and Longshan (3000-2000BC).
circa 2700 BC: First evidence of use of tea and the silkworm to make fabrics.
CHINA’S EARLY “DYNASTIES”
China starts to see the beginning of a distinctive culture with the three earliest states: The XIA, SHANG, and ZHOU dynasties. These early “dynasties” weren’t truly unified states, but were instead more of a decentralized, loose alliance of smaller powers.
THE XIA DYNASTY [ c. 2100-1600 BC ]
Believed to be a small nation made up of a league of tribes, this semi-mythical “first” dynasty of China existed just before written language was developed. What little is known about the Xia came from unearthed artifacts and fragments of written records during the next dynasty.
One key development: The first evidence of Chinese metalwork (bronze).
THE SHANG DYNASTY [ c. 1600 – 1050 BC ]
Widely considered China’s first dynasty. Experts debated whether the Shang were real or mythical…until the early 1900’s, when about 20,000 pieces of Oracle Bones (inscriptions on bones and turtle shells) were found in the fields of Henan province. Before they were recognized for what they were, locals thought they were dragon bones and were grinding them up as medicine to cure malaria.
The Shang lived in large complex societies ruled by kings who were considered intermediaries between the living and dead. They were buried in imposing subterranean tombs (near Anyang and Zhengzhou in modern-day Henan province). Hundreds (possibly slaves) were killed or committed suicide and buried to accompany their king in the afterlife.
Written Chinese: About 4,000 characters were inscribed on Oracle Bones.
First Chinese calendar: An astronomical-based system with a 60-day cycle.
Use of compressed earth for buildings and defensive walls: The city walls around their capital of Zhengzhou enclosed an area of three square kilometers.
THE ZHOU DYNASTY [ 1066-771 BC ]
The Shang is overthrown by rival Zhou, who establish their capital at modern day Xi’an.
They adopt many Shang traditions but with improvements. The practice of “consulting the bones” is replaced by a more sophisticated system of divination: the I Ching (the “Book of Changes”), which is still used today.
The Chinese sense of unique identity and cultural superiority grows. For the first time, China becomes known as Zhong Guo (中国 , meaning “Middle Kingdom”), the same name used by the Chinese today. Outsiders are considered uncivilized “barbarians.”
Rice alcohol is first distilled in China (unfortunately the karaoke machine would not be invented until many years later).
THE MANDATE OF HEAVEN
A vital concept is born: the idea of the “Mandate of Heaven”— in which Heaven gives wise rulers a mandate to rule….and takes it away from evil and corrupt ones. The emperor becomes known as the “Son of Heaven.” Heavily influencing Chinese history well into the 1900’s, the mandate was used throughout Chinese history to legitimize ruling dynasties, as well as to question government in times of confusion.